V. Notes by Dana Williams


1. Chaz Bufe, "The American Heretic's Dictionary", an inclusion within "The Devil's Dictionaries", Tuscon, Arizona: See Sharp Press, 1995.

2. Various authors and editors, "An Anarchist FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) Version 7.8". Section A.1 "What is anarchism?" The FAQ is undoubtedly British in origin, judging by the spelling of certain English words.

3. Merrian-Webster's WWW Dictionary for etymology. Other definitions drawn from Webster's Dictionary 1996 and Fast-Times Political Dictionary 1998. Interesting to note, however is a 1966 definition from The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (Unabridged Edition) on "anarchist": a believer in voluntary association as the most satisfactory means of organizing society. Terror or chaos is not even mentioned. Analysis from Anarchist FAQ Section A.1.1 "What does 'anarchy' mean?"

4. Rudolph Rocker, "Anarchosyndicalism". Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd., 1938.

5. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.2 "Why do anarchists emphasise liberty?" The ideas of religion and family as potentially authoritarian structures derive from statements and acknowledgments made by Michael Bakunin ("God and the State", Chapter II) and Noam Chomsky ("Anarchism, Marxism and Hope for the Future", from the Chomsky Archives) respectively.

6. Noam Chomsky, "Noam Chomsky on Anarchism". Edited by Tom Lane, from the Chomsky Archives. December 23, 1996.

7. Michael Bakunin, as cited in Anarchist FAQ Section B.1 "Why are anarchists against authority and hierarchy?" The legitimacy of authority is heavily discussed in Anarchist FAQ Section B "Why do anarchists oppose the current system?" (et al). The "child in the street" example comes from "Anarchism, Marxism, and Hope".

8. Peter Kropotkin, "Anarchism and Violence", from "The Anarchist Reader", Sussex, England: The Harvester Press Ltd., 1977, edited by George Woodcock, 184-185.

9. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.18 "Do anarchists support terrorism?"

10. Ibid. and Warren Lerner, "A History of Socialism and Communism in Modern Times", Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1994, 46-50. Here there is a very short discussion of anarchists and the terror that is credited to them. "Propaganda by deed" is mentioned as well as some superficial associations with the Haymarket Square Massacre, and the assassinations of Alexander II, James Garfield, and William McKinley.

11. Alexander Berkman, "The Violence of the Lawful World", taken from "The Anarchist Reader", 185-187. The application of the term "terrorism" is applied from "The American Heretic's Dictionary" definition of "bomb": a means of persuasion. When employed by those in power, its use is customarily termed 'in the national interest', and those who use it are customarily described as 'tough' and 'courageous'. When employed by those out of power, its use is customarily termed 'terrorism', and those who employ it are customarily described as 'ruthless' and 'cowardly'. The US's attitude on Turkey and Iraq is drawn from the mainstream media, which can be observed from the CNN.com articles, 06/28/99 "Grieving Turks call for Ocalan's death" and 08/18/99 "U.S. pushing war crimes charges against Iraq's Saddam Hussein". Also, relevant to the terrorist state discussion is Noam Chomsky, "Deterring Democracy", New York: Hill & Wang, 1991, 193-194.

12. Emma Goldman, "Anarchism: What It Really Stands For" from Sue Davis, "American Political Thought: Four Hundred Years of Ideas and Ideologies". Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1996, p373 and Albert Einstein, "Why Socialism?" from Leo Huberman and Paul M. Sweezy, "Introduction to Socialism". New York: Modern Reader, 1968, 14-15.

13. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.15 "What about Human Nature?"

14. Peter Kropotkin, "Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution". Originally published 1902. His areas of study are broken down by chapter in "Mutual Aid", with his findings summarized in the Conclusion chapter.

15. Personal observations of working on teams, in large groups, and as a community. In such cases the "opponent" is only the problem at hand, not each other.

16. Albert Einstein, from an address in Albany, NY, October 15, 1936.

17. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.6 "Why is solidarity important to anarchists?"

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid. and Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.11 "Why are most anarchists in favour of direct democracy?" The latter tackles the idea of "self-restraint" which is nothing more than common respect for others, in a community sustainability sense. Public smoking example is personally created, yet adapted from Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.4 "Are anarchists in favour of 'absolute' liberty?"

20. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2 "What does anarchism stand for?"

21. Peter Kropotkin, "Anarchist Morality". Specifically relevant are Sections IV and V.

22. From general anarchist readings. These attitudes drawn from a multitude of sources, such as the FAQ and "Anarchosyndicalism".

23. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2, also Anarchy FAQ Section A.2.2.

24. Erico Malatesta, "Mutual Aid-- an essay" From "Malatesta: Life and Ideas", Verne Richards, editor. London: Freedom Press, 1965. Also, parts of Murray Bookchin "Anarchism: Past and Present", Vol. 1, No. 6 of Comment: New Perspectives in Libertarian Thought, 1980. Analogy to a car is self-created. The "bunch of people" line is just an oft-heard saying to define a community, a "definition" which doesn't really get at the true essence of a "community".

25. All summarized with Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.

26. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.3 "Are anarchists in favour of organisation?" and Section A.2.6. Also Emma Goldman "The Individual, Society, and the State", a pamphlet sponsored by the Free Society Forum.

27. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.5 "Why are anarchists in favour of equality?" This idea translates into similar notions of equality in society, such as equal treatment under the law by all people of different genders, races, classes, sexual orientations, religions, and handicaps.

28. Randolph T. Holhut "The Real Welfare Cheats: Corporate America". Eugene Debs, "Unionism & Socialism" from "American Political Thought", 363.

29. Institute for Research on Poverty, "How many children are poor", citing Bureau of the Census, Press Briefing on 1996 Income Poverty and Health Insurance Estimates, 1996. Twentieth Century Fund, "Wealth Inequality in the United States Leads the World and the Gap Here Is Widening", 1995.

30. David C. Korten, "Economic Myths", from "When Corporations Rule the World", West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1995.

31. Anarchist FAQ Sections A.2.2 and A.2.12 "Why is voluntarism not enough?"

32. Peter Marshall, as cited in Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.2. Anarchy FAQ Section A.2.9 "What sort of society do anarchists want?" discusses the need for decentralization and free association.

33. Howard Zinn, "Failure to Quit: Reflections of an Optimistic Historian", Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1993, chapter "The Problem is Civil Obedience", 43-52. Also see Henry David Thoreau, "Civil Disobedience" as cited in Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.4 in which he states: "Disobedience is the true foundation of liberty. The obedient must be slaves." The quote "...when injustice becomes law" taken from a sign which appeared in a picture of an anarchist convention.

34. Emma Goldman, "Patriotism, a menace to Liberty", from Spunk Library 1911.

35. Leo Tolstoy, "Resistance to Military Service", from "The Anarchist Reader", 204-208. Muste quote is cited in Howard Zinn "A People's History of the United States: 1492-Present", New York: Harper-Perennial Library, 1995, 416. Additional ideas are found in Randolph Bourne, "War is the Health of the State", from "The Anarchist Reader", 98-103, where he suggests that modern states thrive economically and politically by preying on other states.

36. Noam Chomsky, "Socialism, real and fake", from "What Uncle Sam Really Wants", Berkley: Odonian Press, 1992. Also see Emma Goldman, "The Failure of the Russian Revolution", from "The Anarchist Reader", 153-162, where she remarks: "in its mad passion for power, the Communist State even sought to strengthen and deepen the very ideas and conceptions which the Revolution had come to destroy." Quote of "...grinding state capitalism" from Rudolph Rocker "Ideology of Anarchism".

37. CRASS, "Bloody Revolutions" from the split 7" single with the Poison Girls, 1980, on CRASS Records; also appears on "Best Before 1984" compilation, 1984 also on CRASS Records. CRASS was also fond of the slogan: "Fight war not wars; destroy power not people".

38. Portland State University, "Ancient Greek Politics between 515 and 450 B.C. in Athens", Thucydides quoting Pericles' funeral oration for the men who died in the Peloponnesian War. Democracy's past problems are simply drawn from a variety of nation's histories, including the United States. Merrian-Webster's WWW Dictionary for definition.

39. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.9. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, "Parliamentary Isolation", from "The Anarchist Reader", 110-111.

40. Ibid.

41. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.11 and Michael Bakunin, "The Illusion of Universal Suffrage", from "The Anarchist Reader", 108-110.

42. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.11 and Anarchy FAQ Section A.2.12 "Is consensus an alternative to direct democracy?" The assertion that a percentage-based solution may be sought and is feasible is personally observed and practiced.

43. Voltairine De Cleyre, "Direct Action", from the Spunk Library. De Cleyre's optimism for direct action is echoed by Noam Chomsky: "If you assume that there's no hope, you guarantee that there will be no hope. If you assume that there is an instinct for freedom, [that] there are opportunities to change things, [then] there's a chance you may contribute to making a better world. The choice is yours."

44. Merriam-Webster's WWW Dictionary.

45. Frederick Edwords, "What is Humanism?", 1989. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.19 "What ethical views do anarchists hold?"

46. Daniel Guérin, "Anarchism: from theory to practice", New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.19.

47. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.19. Kropotkin quote starts "Is it useful...", the rest of citation is taken from the FAQ's text.

48. savand@suba.com "A History of Punk", January 1990. Additional history from All Music Guide, "Punk", 1999.

49. Ibid. Early 1980's American bands who were stridently anti-authoritarian: Bad Brains, Bad Religion, Black Flag, Dead Kennedys, MDC, Minutemen, Minor Threat, Social Distortion, X.

50. Michael Marciano, "Do It Yourself!", Hartford Advocate, 1996, an article on the recent independent success of Ani DiFranco. Listing of record labels is compiled personal listening habits-- see author for "references".

51. For examples of songs which challenge power structures see (hear?) the following: Black Flag "Police Story" (police brutality), Dead Kennedys "California Über Alles" (corrupt politicians), Minor Threat "Cashing In" (corporate greed), Bad Religion "American Dream" (self-centered consumerism), Gang of Four "Guns Before Butter" (militarism), Minutemen "West Germany" (nationalism/patriotism), Bad Brains "Big Takeover" (unjust moral authorities), CRASS "Reality Asylum" (religious right).

52. Minutemen, "Untitled Song for Latin America", from "Double Nickels on the Dime", SST Records, 1984. Minor Threat, "Out of Step", "Straight Edge", In My Eyes", and "Bottled Violence", all from "Complete Discography", Dischord Records, 1988. Propagandhi, "Fuck Machine", from "How To Clean Everything", Fat Wreck Chords, 1993 and "Less Talk, More Rock" and "Refusing To Be A Man", from "Less Talk More Rock", Fat Wreck Chords, 1996. Also see other viewpoints on Propagandhi's album and the liner notes to "Less Talk, More Rock". G-7 Welcoming Committee at P.O. Box 27006 C-360 Main Street Winnipeg, MB Canada R3C 4T3. Mondragón information can be found online and at 1A-91 Albert Street, Winnipeg, MB Canada R3B 1G5.

53. Hakim Bey, "The Temporary Autonomous Zone Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism", 1985 (anti-copyright), Autonomedia. Specifically "Pirate Utopias" and "Waiting for the Revolution". Creating "pockets" of freedom can be accomplished through many means, such as described in the next 6 notes.

54. AK Press, "About AK Press Distribution". Z Magazine, in addition to being a print magazine, has also transported itself to the Internet as ZNet, which is referred to as "a community of people concerned about social change".

55. Srini Kumar, About Us, from UnAmerican Activities, Last modified, 1999. In a downloadable "Propaganda Kit", a poster jestingly declares: "URGENT: all advertising (this included) is a subtle form of fascism".

56. Graffiti = Democracy observations are personal theories. "Billboard liberation" is also derived from the notion of graffiti-empowerment, in which a pre-existing sign or billboard is modified to portray a message or convey a meaning which the liberator feels is closer to the truth.

57. Radio 4 All, "Don't Let Them NAB Our Airwaves". NAB is the National Association of Broadcasters, is a powerful lobby in the US, and is highly influential with the FCC. Grand Forks has had an operating pirate station since the summer of 1999, frequency 88.3 FM.

58. Kalle Lasn, "The New Activism", Adbusters, July/August 1999, 6-7. Media Foundation, "Adbusters". Additional information on Adbuster's website for campaigns, uncommercials, and spoof ads.

59. Lenny Zeltser, "The World-Wide Web: Origins And Beyond", 1995. Good online classical and modern anarchist collections can be found at "Anarchist Archive" at Claremont Colleges, "Anarchists and Fellow Travelers" from the Culture-Jammer's Encyclopedia, The Mid-Atlantic Infoshop, "Spunk Library", and "Anarchy for Anybody" from Radio 4 All. The FAQ is mirrored at an estimated 9 Internet sites; this is one.

60. Anarchist FAQ Section A.2.7 "Why do anarchists argue for self-liberation?", in which it states "Anarchism is based on people 'acting for themselves' (performing what anarchists call 'direct action')".

61. Anarchist FAQ Section A.3.5 "What is anarcha-feminism?". Emma Goldman, "Anarchy and the Sex Question", The Alarm, Sunday, September 27, 1896, p.3. "The Tragedy of Women's Emancipation", from "Anarchism and Other Essays", Second Revised Edition, New York & London: Mother Earth Publishing Association, 1911. 219-231. "Marriage and Love", from "Anarchism and Other Essays", 233-245.

62. James Hutchings, Let's Talk About Sex, Class War, from Spunk Libraries. It also talks about sexual freedoms, pornography, and sexism. The direct tie or the "pro-queer movement" to feminism is a personal observation. Outcry over prevalent homophobia is declared by the pro-queer Propagandhi "Less Talk, More Rock". For other thoughts on homophobia, see Dana Williams (ed.) "Homophobia: Bigotry by any other name, is still Bigotry".

63. Earth First! Journal, "The Problem" and "Why Earth First!?". Earth First! correctly observes that "Clearly, the conservation battle is not one of merely protecting outdoor recreation opportunities; neither is it a matter of elitist aesthetics, nor "wise management and use" of natural resources. It is a battle for life itself, for the continuous flow of evolution.". Anarchist FAQ Section A.3.3 "What kinds of green anarchism are there?". Bookchin quote also cited in FAQ. Another good Bookchin paper is "Anarchism and Ecology", from "The Anarchist Reader", 365-370. Also see Lester R. Brown, Christopher Flavin, Hilary French, et al., "State of the World 1999: The Millennium Edition", New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999 for chapters on energy, forests, plant diversity, oceans, biodiversity, and cities. Earth First! is deeply involved in the movement to save the Headwaters Forest.

64. Propagandhi, "Animals are not biological machines", from liner notes of their album "Less Talk, More Rock". The reasons for being vegan/vegetarian are compiled from conversations and personal observations. Food Not Bombs, What is Food Not Bombs?"

65. Jack Jansen, About the Anarchists Cookbook, Spunk Press, 1997. Additional information can be found in the Anarchist Cookbook FAQ, compiled by Ken Shirriff, 1995. The real "Anarchists Cookbook" information comes from the Anarchist Cookbook Collective, who are compiling food and drink recipes.

66. Anarchist FAQ Section A.3.4 "Is anarchism pacifistic?". Leigh Kendall, Pacifism, from "Anarchism in Australia Today". Good essays on the Spanish Revolution may be found in "Flowers for the Rebels who Failed", Part 5 of "The Anarchist Reader". Information on the EZLN, can be found online (Spanish). Leo Tolstoy's works are good introductions to mixing pacifism with anarchism and identifying the role of the state's violence. Tolstoy was an extremely religious Christian who was excommunicated for preaching what he saw as Christ's true message of peace, forgiveness, and non-violence. FAQ suffers from many bull-headed notions of "violence", and relies less on principle than the Kendall piece. FAQ section A.3.4 is one of the few sections that this author disagrees with.